First: set down the safety pin... you're only going to frustrate yourself, which isn't a good start to any new hobby.
You might get lucky and open the occasional lock by just jamming in a straight safety pin and vibrating it up and down... but only if it has very poor tolerances or fairly easy pinning. Your Schlage deadbolt is a reasonable-quality lock: it's unlikely to open that way.
I think the best first step would be to check out a few of the beginner tutorials posted in the Pick-Fu forum
for a good explanation of the fundamentals of lock operation and picking technique, and some of the templates posted in the Lockpicks forum
for some good examples of lockpick designs.
Lockpicks are shaped to allow you to interact with one (or more) pins at a time, in order for you to be able to lift each one to its correct height; a straight wire won't give you the control you need, and the technique isn't hard... but it's more involved than just vibrate a wire up and down while turning. (You're correct that you're clearly causing a few pins to stick... but it's not likely that they're sticking at the correct height.)
One other bit of friendly advice for now (coming from the mistakes of many, many new lockpickers before you): I'd really recommend that you not practice on your front door lock. It's easy to accidentally get the lock into a state that might be difficult to recover from if you don't have a good visualization of how locks work. (A quick search for the several dozen posts of "Help! I just picked my front door lock... the plug rotated 180Â° and then jammed!" will show you one common problem.)
There are lots of great folks here who are willing to answer lots of questions, share lots of tips, and help introduce you to a great new hobby. Welcome to the site, and have a look around: there's lots of great info!